Diabetes Mellitus:Symptoms,Types, Causes
Undoubtedly, diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by inherited or acquired deficiency in the production of insulin hormone by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced.It is one of the oldest known human diseases according to a scientist who I spoke to recently about the disease as we downed coffee in the hood.Melbourne born metabolic endocrinologist told me that deficiency results in increased concentrations of glucose in the blood,can develop into other serious complications like heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, circulation problems, nerve damage and damage to the kidneys or eyes.In metabolic endocrinologist own words, the main symptoms of untreated diabetes are increased thirst, overactive bladder, especially during the night, extreme tiredness, weight-loss, genital itching or regular episodes of thrush and blurred vision.Thanks to our current lifestyles, food portions and increased sugar in our diet, diabetes will become the biggest killer over the next few years. Those who don’t know, diabetes mellitus comes from the Greek words for syphon and sugar, and describes the most obvious symptom of uncontrolled diabetes, the passing of large amounts of urine that is sweet because it contains sugar.The main types of diabetes include Type 1 Diabetes otherwise known as insulin-dependent diabetes. The metabolic endocrinologist told me it develops as a result of the pancreas producing little or no insulin and is commonly seen in patients under the age of 40 and always requires insulin.
Then there is Type 2 Diabetes otherwise known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. According to him, Patients with Type 2 are able to make insulin but the amounts produced are insufficient. They are often less sensitive to insulin also known as insulin resistance, and may be treated with diet and exercise initially, but often require tablets and insulin later in their lives.In further explanation, people at risk of developing type-2 diabetes are those with a family history of diabetes, people aged between 40 years and 75 years old,people who are very overweight and women who have given birth to a large baby. Certain medications, hormones, and steroids can also increase a person’s risk of acquiring diabetes mellitus he added. People with type-1 diabetes need injections of insulin for the rest of their lives. They also need to have a healthy diet containing the right balance of foods. Insulin cannot be taken orally because it is destroyed by the digestive juices. People with type-1 diabetes usually take either two injections or four injections of insulin per day. Metabolic endocrinologist also informed me that people with type-2 diabetes need to eat a healthy diet, and sometimes take additional oral hypoglycemia tablets. These tablets can help the pancreas produce more insulin, assist the body make better use of the insulin that the pancreas does produce, or slow down the speed at which the body absorbs glucose from the intestine.There is currently no cure for diabetes, but with correct treatment, the blood glucose level can be controlled, to give the patient a relatively normal lifestyle and eating healthily and taking regular physical exercise would also reduce the risk of developing complications.